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目前显示的是 五月, 2016的博文

诗经“鼠無牙”是指老鼠没有獠牙。

理雅各(James Legge) 在注释这一句的时候,无法理解作者的思路。认为召南申女的这一句辩护词有缺陷。“雀无角”里的“角”,他不象有些注释家那样,解释为鸟喙,而是解释为牛羊等动物头上一样的角。但是“鼠无牙”里的“牙”,他觉得,可能是槽牙,因为通常的牙指槽牙(grinder, molar teeth),而齿指门牙和犬牙(incisors, canine teeth)。

Her 2d illustration is defective, if we take 牙 to mean, as is commonly said, only 'the grinders,' in opposition to 齒, the front or incisor teeth, for the rat has both incisors and molars, wanting only the intermediate teeth. But by 牙 is probably to understand all the other teeth but the incisors. People might infer from seeing what it did, that its mouth was full of teeth, which is not the case. So they might infer, from her being brought by her prosecutors to trial, that their case was complete; but in reality it was not so. 
但是槽牙的含义似乎是后来的发展。最早的牙是象形,《说文》:“牡齒也。”也就是说雄性动物特有的。那只有一种解释,诗经时代的牙是指獠牙,比如疣豬,公猪,海象,大象等动物特有的獠牙(tusks)。人们通常很少见到老鼠有獠牙,因为老鼠一直在啃东西,尽管它们的门牙一直在长,但靠不停的啃啮和磨牙,磨损掉了,要不然老鼠嘴巴无法闭合。家养动物,往往阉割过,尽管也有獠牙,但是没有了威力,就好像说拔了牙的老虎。所以《易经·大畜》:“六五,豶豕之牙,吉。”这一卦说,阉割过公猪的獠牙,尽管弱,但占据六五居中的位置,所以也是吉利的。

这样,“雀无角”和“鼠无牙…