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《礼记》关于“出国”

《礼记·曲礼》记载出国之礼:
君子行禮,不求變俗。祭祀之禮,居喪之服,哭泣之位,皆如其國之故,謹修其法而審行之。去國三世,爵祿有列於朝,出入有詔於國,若兄弟宗族猶存,則反告於宗後;去國三世,爵祿無列於朝,出入無詔於國,唯興之日,從新國之法。
出国之人遵守祖国礼俗还是新国礼俗,这里规定得很清楚,在国外第三代出生,还要根据在本国是否有兄弟宗族,朝廷是否还有爵禄,决定是否改变自己的祖国的礼俗。

当然礼不下庶人,对于普通人来说,无所谓有什么朝廷爵禄的问题,只需考虑由五兄弟宗族是否还存在,如果是,则须回去通告自己在国外的状况。

James Legge的英文翻译:
A superior man, in his practice of ceremonies (in another state), should not seek to change his (old) customs. His ceremonies in sacrifice, his dress during the period of mourning, and his positions in the wailing and weeping, will all be according to the fashions of-his former (state). He will carefully study its rules, and carry them exactly into practice. (But) if he (or his descendants) have been away from the state for three generations, and if his dignity and emoluments be (still) reckoned to him (or his representative) at the court, and his outgoings and incomings are announced to the state, and if his brothers or cousins and other members of his house be still there, he should (continue to) send back word about himself to the representative of his ancestor. (Even) after the three generations, if his dignity and emoluments be not reckoned to him in the court, and his outgoings and incomings are (no longer) announced in the state, it is only on the day of his elevation (to official rank) that he should follow the ways of his new state.
James Legge在一百多年前翻译礼记(礼记英文版出版于1885年),这段翻译的注释中,James Legge提到当时的华侨不愿意改变自己的习俗:
The 'superior man' here must be an officer, probably the head of a clan or family. Does not the spirit of this chapter still appear in the unwillingness of emigrants from China to forget their country's ways, and learn those of other countries?
现在出国的人也许不那么讲究了。

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如何翻译秀才、举人和进士

今天阅读蒲松龄的《聊斋志异》英文版,STRANGE STORIES FROM A CHINESE STUDIO,翻译Herbert Giles,由微软扫描制作的电子图版,非常漂亮。还有Todd Compton扫描录入的电子文本版,也非常全面。还有由LibriVox制作的语音朗读,MP3格式,可供下载,但是只有20篇。

非常有趣的是,“聊斋”一词的翻译,“斋”翻译作书房没错,但据我的理解,“聊”应该作“聊天”解。Herbert Giles直接用Chinese Studio。

读《聊斋志异》第一篇考城隍,Examination for the Post of Guardian Angel,Herbert Giles居然将城隍翻译成Guardian Angel。还有他直接将秀才翻译成graduate,那是大学毕业生。他在注解中给出了秀才、进士、举人的翻译,并且将其对应于学士、硕士和博士学位:

The three degrees of Imperial Civil Examination are literally, (1) Cultivated Talent, (2) Raised Man, and (3) Promoted Scholar.The English equivalents for all kinds of Chinese terms could be bachelor’s degree, Master's degree, and Doctor's degree.

科举考试翻译作Imperial Civil Examination,也可以省却civil。

在北京公主坟半夜等出租车

有一次我在北京公主坟那边,晚上12点钟在等出租车,不知道怎么回事,身旁有一个女的也在等车。她问我去哪里?后来发现她和我是同一个方向,就两个人一起坐出租车,商量好共同付钱,下车以后我把钱给司机,但是那个女的钱给司机,司机却不要。后来司机和我吵了起来,他说车上明明只有一个人,从来没有看到一个女的。这事真怪!网友回复:也许公主坟里的公主蹭了你的出租车。

TG是什么的缩写?

由于网络审查,网民有以“GCD”、“GF”、“土共”、“TG”、“伟光正”、“镰刀锤子帮”等指代中共。TG是“土共”一词拼音首字母的缩写,而且组合起来还很像镰刀锤子,T是锤子,G是镰刀。