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2015中国环保法与商业机会

导言

1992年的《京都协议》是一个关于全球气候变化和减少温室气体排放的国际协议。这个协议制定以后并没有被世界各国所重视。中国的“改革开放”政策,重视经济发展,却严重忽略了环境保护。

2015年1月开始,新的《环保法》实施。对于本地企业来说,遵守环保法至少不需要支付罚款,也不会因为对本地环境和社区的危害影响企业的声誉。更加重要的,中国政府的第12个五年计划强调低碳和绿色经济,为支持和搭建更多的平台注入资金。这为环保企业创造了新的商业机会。

习近平主席领导的政府非常重视环保问题,对污染尤其是“雾霾”采取严厉的措施:
  • 环境污染罚款没有上限,所以安装看似昂贵的环保设施往往更划算。
  • 政府部门掩盖环保问题或者不公开信息将受到处罚。
  • 政府提倡采用低碳和节俭的生活方式。

问题

这篇文章主要针对硫、苯乙烯污染问题,喷漆和电镀产生废水、废渣问题,并提供这些方面的新技术和新产品的信息。

脱硫:硫排放到空气中形成酸雨,给环境造成危害。

苯乙烯污染:苯乙烯是有害物质,尤其是接触眼睛和皮肤。吸入和食入对胃、呼吸道、肾脏有害。吸入高剂量的苯乙烯,可能对神经系统造成影响,比如疲倦、晕眩、或者反应迟钝。美国环保局和国际癌症研究中心把苯乙烯归类为“潜在的致癌物质”。

喷漆废渣处理:喷漆废渣目前采用活性碳吸附处理。但是活性碳处理废气效果不好,产生废油渣没有公司回收。

电镀废水、废渣处理:从电镀生产工艺可将电镀废水分为前处理废水、镀层漂洗废水、后处理废水以及废镀液、废退镀液等四类。

解决方案

废水和废渣处理工艺:
  • 活性碳吸附
  • 沙/无烟煤过滤器
  • 再矿化过滤器
  • 逆渗透
  • 臭氧消毒

无烟煤含碳成分高达到百分之92.1到98,很难点燃但燃烧时火焰无烟。其细小的颗粒可作为过滤媒介。沙/无烟煤过滤器使用无烟梅、沙和砾石构成三成过滤结构。

再矿化是指有机物质转换成无机物的过程,有机物跟碳、氮、硫等化学反应后生成无机物。

渗透是某种溶剂通过半透膜从低浓度向高浓度转移。比如,在半透膜两侧分别注入纯水和盐水,过一段时间,纯水液面下降,盐水液面升高。逆渗透是使用压力从盐水中提取纯净水的过程。

臭氧消毒:跟氯相比,臭氧能杀死跟多的微生物,除臭、除味熟读更快。缺点是臭氧不稳定,必须即产即用,其生产设备相当昂贵。

公司与产品


Company Name Country Contact details Services
Paqell Netherlands hans.wiknbelt@paqell.com Sulphur removal (Oil & Gas)
Idreco Italy info@idreco.com Desulphurisation
E.I.Tec. GmbH Energy and Environmental Technology Germany info@eitec-gmbh.net Flue gas purification
EMIT Ercole Marelli Impianti Tecnologici S.p.A. Italy emitgroup@emit.it Wastewater treatment
Sodimate USA sodimate.inc@sodimate.com Water treatment (Heavy metals)
PPC Air Pollution Control Systems USA info@ppcesp.com Desulphurisation
Ashland Deutschland GmbH Germany PMeuropesales@ashland.com Styrene decomposition
Monoworld Limited UK sales@monoworldrecycling.co.uk Plastic recycling
Lenntech BV Netherlands info@lenntech.com Waste water from paint treatment
Beckart Environmental Intl. Ltd. UK 44(0)1543 493189 Waste water from paint treatment

Environmental Law

第四章 防治污染和其他公害

Chapter IV Prevention and Control of Pollution and Other Public Hazards

第四十条 国家促进清洁生产和资源循环利用。

Article 40. The State shall promote clean production and resources recycling.

国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府应当采取措施,推广清洁能源的生产和使用。

Relevant departments of the State Council and local people’s governments at various levels shall adopt measures to promote the production and use of clean energy.

企业应当优先使用清洁能源,采用资源利用率高、污染物排放量少的工艺、设备以及废弃物综合利用技术和污染物无害化处理技术,减少污染物的产生。

Enterprises shall give priority to the introduction of clean energy, adopt process and facilities with higher resource efficiency as well as low pollution discharges, and apply comprehensive waste utilization technologies and waste disposal technologies to reduce pollutant generation.

第四十一条 建设项目中防治污染的设施,应当与主体工程同时设计、同时施工、同时投产使用。防治污染的设施应当符合经批准的环境影响评价文件的要求,不得擅自拆除或者闲置。

Article 41. Installations for the prevention and control of pollution at a construction project must be designed, built and commissioned together with the principal part of the project. Installations of the pollution prevention and control facility shall comply with the requirements of the approved environmental impact assessment report, and shall not be dismantled or left idle without authorization.

第四十二条 排放污染物的企业事业单位和其他生产经营者,应当采取措施,防治在生产建设或者其他活动中产生的废气、废水、废渣、医疗废物、粉尘、恶臭气体、放射性物质以及噪声、振动、光辐射、电磁辐射等对环境的污染和危害。

Article 42. Enterprises, public institutions and other producers and business operators that discharge pollutants shall take measures to prevent and control the environmental pollution caused by waste gas, waste water, waste residues, dust, malodorous gases, radioactive substances and noise, vibration and electromagnetic radiation generated during production, construction or other activities.

排放污染物的企业事业单位,应当建立环境保护责任制度,明确单位负责人和相关人员的责任。

Enterprises and public institutions that discharge pollutants shall each establish an environmental protection accountability system to identify the responsibilities of their persons-in-charge and relevant staff.

重点排污单位应当按照国家有关规定和监测规范安装使用监测设备,保证监测设备正常运行,保存原始监测记录。

Key pollutant-discharging entities shall install and use monitoring equipment in accordance with relevant national provisions and monitoring guidelines, guarantee their normal operations, and shall properly keep the original monitoring records.

严禁通过暗管、渗井、渗坑、灌注或者篡改、伪造监测数据,或者不正常运行防治污染设施等逃避监管的方式违法排放污染物。

Discharging of pollutants by setting up concealed drains, making use of seepage wells or pits, perfusion, tampering or forgery of monitoring data, abnormal operating of pollution prevention and control facilities, or any other means that evade regulation, is strictly prohibited.

第四十三条 排放污染物的企业事业单位和其他生产经营者,应当按照国家有关规定缴纳排污费。排污费应当全部专项用于环境污染防治,任何单位和个人不得截留、挤占或者挪作他用。

Article 43. Enterprises, public institutions and other producers and business operators that discharge pollutants shall pay pollution fees in accordance with relevant state provisions. Pollution fees collected shall be exclusively used for environmental pollution prevention and control, and shall not be withheld, misappropriated or diverted for any other purposes by any entity or individual.

依照法律规定征收环境保护税的,不再征收排污费。

Pollution fee does not apply to those that are subject to environmental protection tax.

第四十四条 国家实行重点污染物排放总量控制制度。重点污染物排放总量控制指标由国务院下达,省、自治区、直辖市人民政府分解落实。企业事业单位在执行国家和地方污染物排放标准的同时,应当遵守分解落实到本单位的重点污染物排放总量控制指标。

Article 44. The State shall adopt total emission control system for key pollutants. The total discharge quota of key pollutants is assigned by the State Council, and allocated to provincial, autonomous region and provincial-level municipality governments for implementation. While conforming to national and local pollutants discharge standards, enterprises and institutions shall also fulfill the total emission control quota for key pollutants as assigned to them.

对超过国家重点污染物排放总量控制指标或者未完成国家确定的环境质量目标的地区,省级以上人民政府环境保护主管部门应当暂停审批其新增重点污染物排放总量的建设项目环境影响评价文件。

For regions that fail to fulfill the total emission control quota or achieve the environmental quality targets assigned by the State, environmental departments at or above provincial level governments shall suspend the EIA approval for their new construction projects that may cause increase of the total key pollutants emission in the region.

第四十五条 国家依照法律规定实行排污许可管理制度。

Article 45. The State shall adopt pollution administrative permit system in accordance with the law.

实行排污许可管理的企业事业单位和其他生产经营者应当按照排污许可证的要求排放污染物;未取得排污许可证的,不得排放污染物。

 Enterprises, public institutions and other producers and business operators pursuant to pollution permit system shall discharge pollutants in accordance with the requirements of their permits; No pollutant discharge is allowed without a pollutant discharge permit.

第四十六条 国家对严重污染环境的工艺、设备和产品实行淘汰制度。任何单位和个人不得生产、销售或者转移、使用严重污染环境的工艺、设备和产品。

Article 46. The State shall implement elimination system for pollution-intensive techniques, equipment and products. No entities or individuals shall produce, sell, transfer or use techniques, equipment and products that seriously pollute the environment. 禁止引进不符合我国环境保护规定的技术、设备、材料和产品。

Technology, equipment, material or product that fails to meet national environmental protection standards are prohibited of importation.

第四十七条 各级人民政府及其有关部门和企业事业单位,应当依照《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》的规定,做好突发环境事件的风险控制、应急准备、应急处置和事后恢复等工作。

Article 47. The people's governments at various levels, their relevant departments, enterprises and public institutions shall, in accordance with the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, conduct proper risk control, emergency preparation, emergency response and post-emergency restoration for environmental accidents.

县级以上人民政府应当建立环境污染公共监测预警机制,组织制定预警方案;环境受到污染,可能影响公众健康和环境安全时,依法及时公布预警信息,启动应急措施。

The people’s governments at or above county level shall establish public monitoring and warning system for environmental pollution, and organize the development of early warning scheme; in the event of pollution emergency with impact to public health and environmental security, timely announcement of warning information and emergency response measures shall be taken by the competent government administrations in accordance with the law.

企业事业单位应当按照国家有关规定制定突发环境事件应急预案,报环境保护主管部门和有关部门备案。在发生或者可能发生突发环境事件时,企业事业单位应当立即采取措施处理,及时通报可能受到危害的单位和居民,并向环境保护主管部门和有关部门报告。

Enterprises and public institutions shall formulate emergency response plans in accordance with relevant national regulations to submit to competent environmental protection administrations and other relevant departments for record-filing. In case of occurrence (or potential occurrence) of environmental accidents, enterprises and institutions shall take immediate measures to handle the situation, timely inform units and residents that are potentially affected and report to the competent environmental authorities and other relevant departments.

突发环境事件应急处置工作结束后,有关人民政府应当立即组织评估事件造成的环境影响和损失,并及时将评估结果向社会公布。

After the completion of the emergency response work, the relevant people's government shall immediately organize the assessment of the environmental impacts and loss, and disclose the assessment results to the public in a timely manner."

第四十八条 生产、储存、运输、销售、使用、处置化学物品和含有放射性物质的物品,应当遵守国家有关规定,防止污染环境。

Article 48. The production, storage, transportation, sale and use of toxic chemicals and materials containing radioactive substances shall comply with the relevant state provisions so as to prevent environmental pollution.

第四十九条 各级人民政府及其农业等有关部门和机构应当指导农业生产经营者科学种植和养殖,科学合理施用农药、化肥等农业投入品,科学处置农用薄膜、农作物秸秆等农业废弃物,防止农业面源污染。

Article 49. The people's governments at various levels and their agriculture and other relevant departments and agencies shall guide agricultural producers and operators to conduct scientific cultivation and plantation, rationally apply cultivating additions such as pesticides and fertilizers, and properly handle agricultural wastes including agricultural films and crop straw and prevent non-point sources agricultural pollution.

禁止将不符合农用标准和环境保护标准的固体废物、废水施入农田。施用农药、化肥等农业投入品及进行灌溉,应当采取措施,防止重金属和其他有毒有害物质污染环境。

It is prohibited to apply solid waste and wastewater that do not conform to standards on agricultural use and environmental protection to farmland. When conducting pesticides, chemical fertilizers and other cultivating additions or irrigating, measures shall be taken to prevent pollution from heavy metals and other toxic and hazardous substances.

畜禽养殖场、养殖小区、定点屠宰企业等的选址、建设和管理应当符合有关法律法规规定。从事畜禽养殖和屠宰的单位和个人应当采取措施,对畜禽粪便、尸体和污水等废弃物进行科学处置,防止污染环境。

The site selection, construction and management of livestock and poultry farms, breeding zones, designated slaughtering enterprises shall be in compliance with laws and regulations. Entities and individuals engaged in livestock poultry breeding and slaughtering shall take effective measures to dispose of manure and carcasses of livestock, sewage and other wastes in a scientific manner to prevent environmental pollution.

县级人民政府负责组织农村生活废弃物的处置工作。

The people's governments at the county level shall be responsible for organizing the disposal of rural household waste.

第五十条 各级人民政府应当在财政预算中安排资金,支持农村饮用水水源地保护、生活污水和其他废弃物处理、畜禽养殖和屠宰污染防治、土壤污染防治和农村工矿污染治理等环境保护工作。

Article 50. The people's governments at various levels shall allocate funds in their fiscal budgets to support protection of rural drinking water sources, treatment of domestic sewage and other waste, pollution prevention and control for livestock and poultry breeding and slaughtering, prevention and control of soil pollution, management of rural industrial and mining pollution and other environmental protection work.

第五十一条 各级人民政府应当统筹城乡建设污水处理设施及配套管网,固体废物的收集、运输和处置等环境卫生设施,危险废物集中处置设施、场所以及其他环境保护公共设施,并保障其正常运行。

Article 51. The people's governments at various levels shall, in a coordinated manner, plan for treatment facilities and supporting pipeline networks for urban and rural construction sewage, environmental and sanitary facilities such as those for the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste, centralized facilities and sites for hazardous waste disposal, as well as other public facilities for environmental protection, and ensure the normal operations thereof.

第五十二条 国家鼓励投保环境污染责任保险。

Article 52 The State encourages participation in environment pollution liability insurance.


此博客中的热门博文

口袋精灵 Pokemon Go 抛球用完了怎么办?

Pokemon Go,也叫口袋精灵、口袋妖怪、口袋怪兽。日语ポケットモンスター (Poketto Monsutā)是Pocket Mosters的英译, Pokémon是缩写Poketto Monsutā。大陆地区的官方中文名称为“精灵宝可梦”。Poké Ball 宝贝球。我觉“宝可梦”还不如翻译作“宝可萌”,而宝贝球还不如“抛球”更好。口袋怪兽狗的宝贝球看起来很像谷歌浏览器的标志图。

我刚开始玩,扔球技术不好,很快就宝贝球就用完了,尤其是在抓捕战斗力级别CP155的引夢貘人(Hypno)损失了好几个球。然后只能眼睁睁看着怪兽没法抓捕。除了精灵宝可梦商店里购买,不知道还有什么别的方法。开始玩的时候看到有些补给站,但是不知道什么用的。这个游戏根本没有提示说明,点击那个道馆(Gym)就提示你说级别不够,你需要修行到五级才行。但是没有球了,不能抓怪兽,怎么可能升级呢?回来搜索,原来就是到这些补给站(Pokemon Stop)去,转一下那个图片,十有八九会给你甩出三四个宝贝球来。我就特地再一次跑出去补给站转那个圆盘,还甩出几个蛋,于是可以自己孵化小怪兽了。

这些补给站的位置大多在教堂和风景名胜。原来我玩虚拟入口(Ingress),就是能量塔(Portal)的位置,能量塔级别高就是道馆,而级别低的是补给站。

附近公园里有四五个虚拟入口的能量塔,在口袋精灵钩游戏里就是补给站,其中一个是道馆。在那里碰到两大拨人玩这个游戏,一拨十几岁,另一拨二十几岁。年轻的一拨看着我盯着手机,就围过来问我抓到什么精灵了,看到我的引夢貘人大为赞叹。年纪大一点的问我要打火机,然后凑近看我手机频幕,那是正在玩虚拟入口,他问,你这个怎么跟口袋精灵界面不一样啊?然后说,原来是老版本的。说完,打火机点着烟,闻那个味道是大麻。

有时候,扔球以后就游戏就死机了,需要重启游戏。有玩家说,左上角那个球还在转的时候不能扔宝贝球,十有八九会死机。

另外注意到,偏远郊区怪兽是很少的,附近好多Public Footpath, Bridle Path, 转了几圈,没有发现,怪兽大多出现在街角、十字路口出没。


TG是什么的缩写?

由于网络审查,网民有以“GCD”、“GF”、“土共”、“TG”、“伟光正”、“镰刀锤子帮”等指代中共。TG是“土共”一词拼音首字母的缩写,而且组合起来还很像镰刀锤子,T是锤子,G是镰刀。

关于《聊斋·侠女》里的同性恋情节

胡金銓(King Hu)执导的电影《侠女》,题材取自蒲松龄的《聊斋志异》,但是改编较多。

这里只谈一下原著里描写的“娈童”情节:

“一日,生坐齋頭,有少年來求畫。姿容甚美,意頗儇佻。詰所自,以「鄰村」對。嗣後三兩日輒一至,稍稍稔熟,漸以嘲謔;生狎抱之,亦不甚拒,遂私焉。由此往來昵甚。”
如果这一段描写还是比较隐晦的话,在文章结尾,蒲松龄就很明白地评论说:

“人必室有侠女,而后可以畜娈童也。不然,尔爱其艾豭,彼爱尔娄猪矣!”
这里使用的“娄猪艾豭”的典故出自《左传》“既定爾婁豬,盍歸吾艾豭?”蒲松龄说的是,一个人得有侠女才可以畜娈童,要不然你爱那公猪,这公猪会爱你家的母猪。蒲松龄很清楚的指明顾生与侠女和狐仙之间的三角恋爱关系,而且对蓄“娈童”所使用的语言也并不友善。

电影《侠女》尽管保持了这个三角恋爱,但将狐仙转变为女扮男装,因仰慕顾生的才学和人品,学祝英台。电影将侠女拍成一个还阳的鬼魂,阎罗王特许她两年的假期回阳间报仇。在故事的结局,狐仙重新出现,成了顾生的妻子,报答侠女“不杀之恩”。这些情节的改变,一是跟当时对同性恋的社会认同感不够有关,二是对《聊斋》人鬼恋情的程式化套用的结果。

这种改编原著的做法也体现在翟理斯(Herbert Allen Giles)的英文翻译里。翟理斯生活在维多利亚时代,当时在英国同性恋还是一种罪行。所以,他在《聊斋》英文版序言里说蒲松龄的有些故事“对我们生活的这个时代是非常不适宜的(turned out to be quite unsuitable for the age in which we live)”。翟理斯干脆就删节了原文,略过了上面引用的同性恋描写,只是说顾生和狐仙建立了深厚的友情:

“The two youths soon struck up a firm friendship and met constantly.”
翟理斯在后来的翻译中,就故事的发展就跟原著完全相反了:

“She had conceived a violent dislike to the young stranger above-mentioned; and one evening when he was sitting talking with Ku, the young lady reappeared. After a while she got …