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《詩經·小雅·鹿鳴》 James Legge 翻譯註釋

ODE I. Luh ming.

呦呦鹿鳴、食野之苹。
我有嘉賓、鼓瑟吹笙。
吹笙鼓簧、承筐是將。
人之好我、示我周行。

1. With pleased sounds the deer call to one another,
Eating the celery of the fields.
I have here admirable guests;
The lutes are struck, and the organ is blown [for them];-
The organ is blown till its tongues are all moving.
The baskets of offerings [also] are presented to them.
The men love me,
And will show me the perfect path.

Title of the part. 小雅, 二, “Part II Minor Odes of the Kingdom.' 'Odes of the Kingdom' is not, indeed, a translation of 雅; but the phrase approximates nearer to a description of what the pieces in this and the next part are than any other I can think of. 雅 is explained by 正, 'correct.' Lacharme translates the title by 'parvan Rectum,' adding -- quia in hac parte mores descributur recti illi quidem, qui tamen nonnihil a recto deflectuni.' But the pieces in this Part, as descriptive of manners, are not less correct, or less incorrect, as the case may be, than those in the next. The difference between them is that these were appropriate to lesser occasions, and those to greater. The former, as Choo He says, were sung at festal entertainments in the court; the latter at gatherings of the feudal princes, and their appearances at the

p.246

呦呦鹿鳴、食野之蒿。
我有嘉賓、德音孔昭。
視民不恌、君子是則是傚。
我有旨酒、嘉賓式燕以敖。
呦呦鹿鳴、食野之芩。
我有

With pleased sounds the deer call to one another,
Eating the southernwood of the fields.
I have here admirable guests,
Whose virtuous fame is grandly brilliant.
They show the people not to be mean ;
The officers have in them a pattern and model.
I have good wine,
Which my admirable guests drink enjoying themselves.
With pleased sounds the deer call to one another, Eating the salsola of the fields. I have here admirable guests.

royal court. The name 'small' and 'great,' 'minor' and ma also to the length of the pieces, and to the style of the music to which they were sung, and which is now lost; but we shall find that in the subject-matter of the pieces there is a sufficient ground for such a distinction. As the Fung, or the compositions in the first Part, were produced in the different feudal states, the Ya were produced in the royal territory. The first twenty-two pieces of this Part are attributed, indeed, to the duke of Chow himself, and are distinguished from those that follow as the odes of 'Chow and the South,' and Shaou and the South' are distinguished from the othere Books of Part I. As there were 'the correct Fung (正風)' and 'the Fung degenerate (變風),' so there are 'the correct Ya,' and 'the degenerate Ya.' It was proper to sing the Ya only on great and on solemn occassion at the royal court; in course of time they were used at the feudal courts, and even by ministers of the States, as in the services of Ke family in Loo in the time of Confucius (Ana III. ii.); but this was a usurpation, a consequence of the decay into which the House of Chow fell.

Title of the Book -- 鹿鳴之什, 二之一, 'Decade of Luh-ming; Book I. of Part II.' The pieces in Pt. I are all arranged under the names of the States to which they belonged. In the Parts, II., III., however, they are collected in tens (什), and classified under the name of the first piece in each collection. The only exception, in respect of the number, is the third Book of Part III.

Ode 1, Allusive. A festival one, sung at entertainments to the King's ministers, and guests from the feudal states. In the piece we read of 'guests' simply, but not of ministers or officers. Ying-tah says the officers became the king's guests, when feasted as the ode describes. On this view the entertainment would not include envoys from States, which it does according to Choo, to the time of king Wen.

L. 1,2, in all the stt. Maou makes yew-yew to be simply the cry of the deer, calling to one another; Choo makes it descriptive of ' the harmony of their cry.' Maou is wrong in identifying 苹 here with 萍, 'duckweed,' -- see on I. ii. IV. 1. The 苹 is, probably as Williams calls it, 'a kind of cellery;' --' with a green leaf, white inside, and stalks like quills, edible both raw and cooked.' 蒿 is, probably the male southernwood. 芩 is described by Maou merely as 'grass.' It is marshy plant, with leaves like the bamboo, a creeper. Cattle generally are fond of it, as well as deer. Wiiliams, says, 'perhaps a kind of salsola.' From the deer browsing happily the writer proceeds to the guests and their entertainment.

St. 1,8-8 鼓瑟, -- as in I.x.II.3. 笙 as 簧, -- see on I. vi. III.1. 筐, as in I. i. III. 1. The baskets here must be supposed to be filled with pieces of silk, or other offerings. 承 -- 奉, 'to bear,' -- 'to bring in.' 將--行, 'to do.' -- 'The presenting of baskets of offerings is performed.' This was part of entertain-

p. 247

嘉賓、鼓瑟鼓琴。
鼓瑟鼓琴、和樂且湛。
我有旨酒、以嘉樂嘉賓之心。

For whom are struck the lutes, large and small.
The lutes, large and small, are struck,
And our harmonious joy is long-continued.
I have good wine,
To feast and make glad the hearts of my admirable guests.

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