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《詩經·小雅·四牡》James Legge翻譯註釋

II. Sze maw.

四牡騑騑、周道倭遲。 豈不懷歸、王事靡盬、我心傷悲。

駕彼四駱、載驟駸駸。 豈不懷歸、是用作歌、將母來諗。

1 My four steeds advanced without stopping;

The way from Ohow was winding and tedious.

Did I not have the wish to return?

But the king's business was not to be slackly performed;

And my heart was wounded with sadness.

ment, the host signifying by his gifts his appreciation of his guests. The 之 in L 7 is merely expletive. 周行--大道, or 至道, 'the great,' or 'the perfect way,' the path of right and wisdom.

St.3, LL.3-8. 德音, -- as in I. xv. V. 1. et al. 視--示 in last stanza. 恌--偷薄, 'to be mean.' 君子, --'officers,' in opposition to 民 of the line before. Both 則 and 傚 are verbs, of kindred meaning. 旨--美, 'good,' 'admirable.' 式 is to be taken as an initial particle, --as in I. iii. XI. 敖 -- 游, here 'to enjoy themselves.' Compare the last two lines in I. iii. I. 1.

St. 3, ll. 3-8. 湛 --樂之久, 'long continuance of the joy,' 燕--安, 'to compse,' 'to soothe.'

The rhymes are -- in st. 1, 鳴, 苹, 笙, cat.11; 簧, 將, 行, cat. 10: in 2. 蒿, 昭, 恌, 傚, 敖, cat. 2:in 3, 芩, 琴, 湛, 心, cat. 7, in 1.

Ode 2. Narrative and allusive. A Festal ode complimentary to an officer on his return from an expedition, celebration the union in him of loyal duty and fillial feeling. There is certainly nothing in the ode itself to suggest its being composed for a festal occasion, and to compliment the officer who narrates his story in it. Both Maou and Choo, however, agree in the above account of it. It was not written, they say, by the officer himself, but was put into his month, as it were, to express the sympathy of his royal entertainer with him, and appreciation of his devotion to duty, lliere appear strikingly in it the union of family affections and loyal duty, which we met with in several of the pieces in Part I.; and the merit of king Wftn, to whose times it is assigned, shines out in the allowance which he makes for those affections.

Stt. 1,2. 騑騑 is defined as 'the app. of advancing without ever stopping.' Choo takes 周道 as 大路, 'the great way;' Maou, as I have done in the translation. Acc. to this view, the ode must belong to the time when King Wen was still endeavouring to unite the States in allegiance to the last King of Shang, in whose service the expedition referred to must have been undertaken. Williams says that 倭遲 means 'returning from a distance;' but
p.248

四牡騑騑、嘽嘽駱馬。 豈不懷歸、王事靡盬、不遑啟處。

翩翩者鵻、載飛載下、集于苞栩。 王事靡盬、不遑將父。

翩翩者鵻、載飛載止、集于苞杞。 王事靡盬、不遑將母。

2 My four steeds advanced without stopping;

They panted and snorted, the white steeds black-maned.

Did I not have the wish to return?

But the king's business was not to be slackly performed,

And I had not leisure to kneel or to sit.

3 The Filial doves keep flying about,

Now soaring aloft, and now descending.

Collecting on the bushy oaks;

But the king's business was not to be slackly performed,

And I had not leisure to nourish my father.

4 The Filial doves keep flying about.

Now flying, now stopping,

Collecting on the bushy medlars.

But the king's business was not to be slackly performed,

And I had not leisure to nourish my mother.

that is not the meaning. 倭 here -- 'winding,' 'tortuous.' The dict, in voc., says that 倭遲, 逶迤, 𨖿[⿺辶爲]迆, 委蛇, 威遲, and 委移 are all synonymous. I have followed Maou in the translation of tan-tan. Choo takes the cliaracters as meaning 'numerous.' 駱 is the name for a white horse with a black mane. The conflict of affection and duty appears in 11. 3, 4. L. 4. --see on I. z. VII. 1. 啟=跪, 'to kneel ;' 處=居 or 坐, 'to sit.' Anciently, there were no such things as chairs. People sat on mats: -- if before a superior, kneeling, on their knees, with the body straight; if at their ease, they sat on the ground, leaning on a bench or stool. The two characters in combination signify -- 'to rest.'

Stt. 8. 4. Medhurst calls the chuy, 'a turtle dove,' but it is a different bird from the 鳴鳩, and smaller. Yeu Ts'an enumerates 14 different names by which it is called; but by none of them can I exactly identify it. It is said to be remarkable for its fillial affection; and I have called it therefore 'the Fillial dove.' This idea seems to be the basis of the allusion from it to the speaker in these two stanzas. pien pien denote 'the app. of flying.' 飛 must = 飛上, 'flying aloft.' 栩, -as in I. x. VIII. 1. 杞 here is difft. from the willow tree of the same name in I. vii. 1. The fines of the sort are said to be in Kan-suh, and Shen-se. Its young leaves, like those of a pomegranate tree, but softer and thinner, are edible. It grows in a bushy manner to the height of 8 and 5 cubits, puts forth purplish flowers in the 6th or 7th month, and produces a red fruit, longish like a date. One of its names is 'goats' teats,' from the shape of the fruit. 將=養
p.249

駕彼四駱、載驟駸駸。 豈不懷歸、是用作歌、將母來諗。

i I yoked my four white steeds, black-man ed; They hurried away with speed. [But] did I not wish to return? Therefore I make this song, Announcing my wish to nourish my mother.

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